The Bellelli Family by Edgar Degas

The Bellelli Family by Edgar Degas

Today, My Daily Art Display looks at a painting by a French Impressionist painter who, to me, is synonymous with paintings and sculptures of young ballet dancers.  His name is Edgar Degas who was actually born Hilaire-Germain Edgar De Gas in 1834.  He was in the forefront of the Impressionism movement although he preferred to be labelled as a realist painter.  He worked on today’s featured painting between 1858 and 1867.  It is entitled Family Portrait or The Bellelli Portrait and is a masterpiece of Degas’ youth.  It is a deeply insightful family portrait, in which we observe four people, two adults and two children who are the family Bellelli.

Degas had a traditional École des Beaux-arts education in Paris and in 1856 travelled to Italy to continue his studies and the following year visited his grandfather, Hilaire Degas, in Naples.  He also spent time in Rome where he set about copying the work of the Renaissance Masters.  In 1858 he received an invitation from his aunt, Laura Bellelli, née De Gas, to visit her and her family in Florence and at the same time to take the opportunity to study the paintings in the city’s prestigious gallery, the Uffizi.  He jumped at the chance and so went to stay with the family.  The head of the household was Laura’s husband, Gennaro, who had been a political journalist as well as a fervent supporter and good friend of Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, a leading figure in the movement towards Italian Unification.  When in 1854 the revolution against the Austrians failed, Gennaro was forced to flee from Italy to escape persecution by the Austrians over his participation in the failed uprising.  He first went and lived in exile in Paris but later returned to Florence.

Degas did not get on well with Gennaro and only remained at their rented house until the arrival of his cousins who had remained in Naples following the death of Degas’ grandfather, Hilaire.  Degas’ could sense the tension between Gennaro and his aunt Laura who once she confided in Degas about her relationship with her husband and her uncertain future saying:

“…my husband is “immensely disagreeable and dishonest… Living with Gennaro, whose detestable nature you know and who has no serious occupation, shall soon lead me to the grave….”

Part of the problem was that this exile in Florence separated her from her family back in Naples and to make matters worse, Laura was once again pregnant.  It is thought that the constant tension between her and her husband led to the death of the child in infancy and this tragic loss only added to the bitterness between husband and wife.  It was with this lack of domestic happiness in mind that Degas started this family portrait.

Before us we see the four members of the Bellelli family, Gennaro, his wife Laura, the sister of Degas’ father, and their daughters Giulia and Giovanna.  It is known that Degas made many sketches of the family before returning to Paris to work on the painting.

We see Laura dressed in mourning for the recent death of her father, and Degas’ grandfather, Hilaire, and in the background we can see a framed portrait of him.  Looking closely at how Degas has depicted his aunt.  We see a very dignified woman with a very stern countenance.  She stands upright as if posing for an official picture.  She coldly averts her gaze away from her husband. Her right hand rests protectively on the shoulder of her elder and favourite daughter, Giovanna.   Degas’ two young cousins are depicted with their mother, and are also dressed in mourning, in their black dresses and white pinafores. Giulia half sits on a small chair at the centre of the painting, arms akimbo, as she looks towards her father and in some ways forms a link between the two estranged adults.  Degas was very taken with his cousins describing them:

“….The elder one was in fact a little beauty. The younger one, on the other hand, was smart as can be and kind as an angel. I am painting them in mourning dress and small white aprons, which suit them very well…I would like to express a certain natural grace together with a nobility that I don’t know how to define….”

Note how Degas has positioned the husband and wife far apart in the painting, which was probably an acknowledgement of the tension between the couple and how the two had drifted apart.  There is no feeling of togetherness about the family.    The father sits in an armchair at his desk next to the fireplace, where he had been reading or writing a letter.   He has his back to us but his head is turned towards his daughter.  He appears unmoved and uncaring, showing little interest in what is going on around him.    His body is framed by a mantelpiece on which we see an ornate clock, some plates and a candlestick.  Over the mantelpiece there hangs a large mirror and in the mirror we see reflections of the room which in some way open up the space and fills it with more light.  We see reflections in the mirror of a curtained window, a chandelier and a framed painting.

It is interesting to look at how Degas has seemed to separate the husband from the rest of the family by a vertical separation formed by the leg of the table, the candlestick and the vertical side of the fireplace and mirror.   Just behind his chair, on the floor, we catch a glimpse of the family’s pet dog.  The drawing which we can see hanging on the wall behind Laura is a portrait of the recently deceased Hilaire Degas, which his grandson had drawn.  It is more than likely that Degas positioned this small picture where he did so as to give a sense of connection between the various generations of the Degas family.

Laura must have been appalled that Degas had to stay in a household, which exuded such unhappiness.   It is believed that Laura married Gennaro in desperation because her father had not been satisfied with any of her previous suitors and she was still unmarried at the “ripe old age” of 28.   She was extremely unhappy in her marriage and once shared her misgivings with Degas.   According to the American biographer and art historian, Theodore Reff, who wrote about a letter from Laura to her nephew, in his book , Degas: The Artist’s Mind .   In the letter she wrote:

 “…You must be very happy to be with your family again, instead of being in the presence of a sad face like mine and a disagreeable one like my husband’s…”

 It is thought that this family portrait was not to be a gift to the family but a work of art which he wanted to exhibit at the Paris Salon.  Whether he ever did that is uncertain but many believe he put it forward for exhibition at the Salon in 1867.  Degas kept hold of the painting until 1913 when he gave it to his art dealer, Paul Durand-Ruel, for him to sell.  In 1918 it was sold to the Musée du Luxembourg, Paris  and later the painting was moved to the newly opened Musée d’Orsay where it can now be found.

One should remember that this is not a photograph in which one can detect the mood of the sitters.  This is a painting by an artist who has the ability to paint the demeanour of his sitters in whatever way he chooses.  So this painting is how Degas views the family life of the Bellelli family.  How close it is to realism is known only by Degas and the Bellelli family.  So it is up to you  to decide whether Laura was a stern and disillusioned matriarch and whether Gennaro was the disinterested and curmudgeonly.

L’Absinthe by Edgar Degas

L'Absinthe by Edgar Degas (1876)

My Daily Art Display the other day featured one of the great American Realist artist Edward Hopper’s 1927  painting Automat and we looked at thetheme of loneliness and isolation in an urban environment.  Today I am featuring a painting, which may
have influenced Hopper.  It has had many titles but finally in 1893 the painting was simply called L’Absinthe.  It was painted in 1876 by the French painter and sculptor and one of the founders of Impressionism, Edgar Degas.

Degas was born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas.  Born in Paris in 1834, he was one of five
children of Augustine and Célestine De Gas.  His father was a banker and Edgar was brought up in a moderately wealthy family environment.  After the death of  his mother when he was five years old, he was brought up jointly by his father  and grandfather.  He began school life at the age of eleven and at about this time dropped the use of the ostentatious spelling of the family name for the surname he is known by now, Degas.  He finished his schooling at the age of nineteen and attained a baccalaureate in literature. When he left school he registered as a copyist in the Louvre.  However his father had planned for his son to study law and enrolled him in the Faculty of Law at the
University of Paris.   Edgar was very half-hearted about his father’s career choice and failed with his studies.   He had been always interested in art and in his teenage years wanted to eventually become a famous history painter and paint pictures depicting great moments in history. This art genre had achieved immense popularity in France in the
nineteenth century.  In 1855 he met the great French Neoclassical painter Ingres, who was his idol, and who offered Degas advice, which he was never to forget:

“..Draw lines, young man, and still more lines,
both from life and from memory, and you will become a good artist…”

He enrolled in the École des Beaux-Arts and a  year later journeyed to Italy where he stayed for three years, part of this  time was spent living with his aunt in Naples.
It was during this time that he studied the works of the great Italian  Renaissance painters, such as Michelangelo, Raphael and Titian.  He returned to France in 1859 and moved into
a Paris studio.  His painting genre  slowly changed from that of a history painter to one of a painter of  contemporary subjects.  He was still  copying paintings at the Louvre and it was said that in 1864, whilst working on a copy of Velazquez’s portrait  that he met another artist engaged in the same work.  The artist was Édouard Manet, who was a key figure  in the change-over from Realism to Impressionism and somebody who was to
influence Degas.

His painting career was  temporarily halted for two years with the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War  in 1870.  Degas enlisted in the National  Guard and  his military duties gave him  little time for painting.  With the  conclusion of the war midway through 1871, his military life came to an end and  the next year he went New Orleans where his brother, René, and other relatives  lived.  He returned to Paris the  following year but sadly in 1874 his father died.  A careful scrutiny of his father’s estate  revealed that his brother René had amassed enormous business debts and Degas,  wanting to preserve the good name of the family, had little choice but to sell  his house and a large quantity of his art work to service the debt.  Having always lived a relatively wealthy  existence in which his art was mainly a hobby and for his own pleasure, Degas  suddenly found himself having to paint pictures to sell and by so doing, put  food on his table.  Art historians  believe it was during this time that Degas produced some of his greatest works.

It was also in this period of his  life that Degas came together with a group of like-minded artists and together  they put on independent exhibitions of their art works.  The first of their exhibitions was held in  1874 and it was dubbed an Impressionist Exhibition. However, Degas did not like  the label “Impressionists”, which the media had attached to his group of  painters.  Degas was a leading-light  within this group and proved to be a great organiser.

His financial situation had  improved by this time through the sale of his art and he developed a love for  collecting works of art of the old Masters such as El Greco as well as works by  his contemporaries, Manet, Pissarro and Cézanne.  Alas, with age came his dissatisfaction with life in general.  He became frustrated and disgruntled with  life and became very argumentative and his friends began to desert him.  Of Degas’ confrontational behaviour and loss  of his friends, Renoir once commented:

“…What a creature he was, that Degas!    All his friends had to leave him; I was one
of the last to go, but even I couldn’t stay till the end…”

Degas never married nor had any  children.  In many ways all he had was
his art and he lost that in the last few years of his life when his eyesight
started to fail.  He died in Paris in 1917  aged 83.

And so to the painting, L’Absinthe.  We see two figures, one a man, the other a
woman sitting at a table outside a café.  They are  positioned to the right of centre of the painting which was a style often favoured  by Degas.   The man wearing a hat looks scruffy, almost  tramp-like.  His gaze is away from the  woman and is fixed on something off the canvas, to the right of the  picture.  The woman is also wearing a hat  and is dressed more formally than the man.  She stares ahead with a blank expression, her arms hanging limply down  by her side.  On the table before her we  see a glass filled with a green coloured liquid – absinthe.  It is this drink which lends its name to the  painting.  This drink became very popular  in France around 1850 and became commonly known as the queen of poisons or la fée  verte (the green fairy).  It is anise-based  drink made from the wormwood herb and which is highly toxic and extremely addictive.  It can have an alcohol content as much as 80 per cent by volume, twice that of  spirits we buy today.   It was a latter day drug.   One critic condemned it saying:

“……Absinthe makes you crazy and criminal, provokes epilepsy and tuberculosis, and has killed thousands of French people.  It makes a ferocious beast of man, a martyr of woman, and a degenerate of the infant, it disorganizes and ruins the family and menaces the future of the country….”

In some ways although this painting depicts two people sitting at the same table, the theme is loneliness and social isolation and the consequences.  There is an air of desolation about the man and woman as they stare into space.   Degas invites us to join these regulars at this café.  Look how they sit side by side but there is no contact between them.  There is no animated conversation between them.  Degas is showing us that you can be together but still be alone.  Maybe they can gain some comfort from their individual loneliness.

She sits with her absinthe before her.  He is with his black coffee, probably trying to counteract the effects of too much absinthe.  In my mind, there is a feeling of isolation
permeating from this work.  In this case the isolation may be due to the fact that this pair are heavy drinkers and for that reason they are shunned by society.   Although this is a café scene, the painting could be classed as a portrait as both the man and the woman were known to the artist.  The woman, dressed up as a prostitute, was the famous French actress Ellen Andrée, who modelled for many of the Impressionist artists and the man was Marcellin Desboutin,  a painter and engraver who favoured the Bohemian lifestyle.  Degas wanted his two models to pose as absinthe addicts in front of his favourite café, the Café de la Nouvelle-Athènes,  which was situated in the Place Pigalle in Paris.  It was a popular meeting place for Degas and Impressionist painter friends such as Manet, and van Gogh and this quaint meeting place existed up until 2004.

The painting which now hangs in the Musée d’Orsay was first exhibited in 1876 but was not well received by the critics.  For them it was “ugly and disgusting”.  In 1892 when it came up for auction at Christie’s the lot was greeted with “boos and hisses” !    For
many critics the painting was looked upon as a blow to morality.  The English viewed French art with grave suspicion as to its morality and preferred paintings which were morally uplifting and incorporated a moral lesson.   George Moore the Irish writer and art critic of the time described the woman in the painting:

“…What a whore…”

and of the painting itself critically uttered:

“….the tale is not a pleasant one,  but it is a lesson….”

Ellen Andrée, the actress.

Amusingly once the painting had been exhibited Ellen Andrée became a larger than life figure and a succès de scandale, which only goes to confirm that there is no such thing as bad publicity.  The French government,  at the time, took a much dimmer view of the painting and the furore that had risen from it.  They tried to dampen down to the controversy by saying the green drink on the café table was simply green tea!!!